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Congenital heart defects (CHD) are anatomical defects of the heart, its valve apparatus or its vessels that have arisen in utero (before the baby is born). Congenital heart disease can appear immediately after the birth of a child or it can be hidden. Congenital heart defects occur with a frequency of 6-8 cases per thousand births, which is 30% of all malformations. They rank first in the mortality rate of newborns and children in the first year of life. It is clear that this is a big and serious problem. Treatment of congenital heart anomalies is possible only by surgery. Thanks to the success of cardiac surgery, complex reconstructive operations have become possible for previously inoperable congenital heart disease.
With a large number of different congenital heart diseases, seven of them are most common: ventricular septal defect (VSD) - accounts for about 20% of all cases of congenital heart defects, and atrial septal defect (ASD), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), aortic coarctation, aortic stenosis, stenosis of the pulmonary artery and transposition of large great vessels (TCS), 10-15% each. There are over 100 different congenital heart defects. There are a lot of classifications. The division of defects into blue, accompanied by cyanosis of the skin, and white, in which the skin is pale in color, is often used. Blue type defects include Fallot's tetrad, transposition of great vessels, atresia of the pulmonary artery. For white-type defects, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect and others. The earlier a congenital heart defect is detected, the more hope for its timely treatment. And this can be done even in utero using fetal ultrasound. In the early stages (11-14 weeks), it is easier for a specialist to identify a congenital heart defect with transvaginal ultrasound.
Treatment
Complete cure of the vast majority of heart defects is possible only with the help of their surgical correction.
The main methods of treating CHD are open cardiac surgery and intravascular (endovascular) surgery. The choice of a method of treatment depends on the type of pathology, the age of the child and the general state of his health. For complex defects, several intravascular and open heart surgeries may be required. With patent ductus arteriosus, expectant tactics are permissible, since this duct can close on its own in the first two years of life.
 Endovascular surgery.
The method consists in bringing catheters, occluders, balloons and other intravascular devices to the pathology zone through the vessels, and carrying out various therapeutic manipulations with their help. Today, with the help of endovascular methods of treatment, it is possible to perform such operations as an increase in the atrial communication, expansion of stenotic valves of the pulmonary artery and aorta, restoration of the lumen of a narrowed vessel, blocking of pathological blood flow through a vessel using its embolization, closure of an open arterial duct, defects of the interventricular and interatrial septa, and a number of other interventions.
Advantages of endovascular intervention over open cardiac surgery:
• Less trauma of surgical access to the heart.
• There is no need for general anesthesia.
• Shorter postoperative period
Open cardiac surgery.
The method is used when it is impossible to restore the functions of the valves or eliminate defects of the interatrial septum by endovascular surgery.
The main methods of surgical treatment of CHD:
• Plastic heart valves or implantation of artificial valves.
• Suturing of small defects of the septum or their closing with a patch (with large defects or the absence of a septum).
• Plastic surgery and prosthetics of heart vessels.
• Reconstructive operations.

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