Cardiomyopathy is a change in the muscle of the heart of an often unexplained cause.
The condition for the diagnosis of cardiomyopathy is the absence (or exclusion after examination) of congenital malformations, valvular heart defects, lesions caused by systemic vascular diseases, arterial hypertension, pericarditis, as well as some rare variants of lesions of the cardiac conduction system.
Causes There are three groups of major causes of primary cardiomyopathy: congenital, mixed, and acquired. Secondary are cardiomyopathies due to any disease.
Congenital heart disease develops as a result of a violation of the laying of myocardial tissues during embryogenesis. There are a lot of reasons, ranging from bad habits of the expectant mother to stress and unhealthy diet. Also known are cardiomyopathies of pregnant women and inflammatory cardiomyopathies, which in essence can be called myocarditis.
Secondary forms include the following types:
The manifestations of HCM are diverse and depend on a number of factors: the degree of myocardial hypertrophy, the presence and magnitude of the pressure gradient, mitral valve insufficiency, which is often found in patients, the degree of decrease in the left ventricular cavity and the severity of impaired pumping and diastolic functions of the heart, etc. Complaints are often absent.
There are 3 groups of KMP:
- Dilated (stagnant).
Dilated cardiomyopathy symptoms:
Symptoms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy:
Restrictive cardiomyopathy symptoms:
The main instrumental method for diagnosing all types of cardiomyopathies is ultrasound of the heart. Daily Holter monitoring of the electrocardiogram allows you to assess the frequency and severity of cardiac arrhythmias and intracardiac blockades, as well as the effectiveness of the treatment. Laboratory diagnostics is important to monitor the effectiveness of the therapy in assessing the state of the water-salt balance, to exclude some side effects of drugs, and also to identify secondary causes of heart damage. Prevention Since the causes of cardiomyopathy are not fully understood, there is currently no specific prophylaxis. It is necessary to treat heart disease in a timely manner.
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