Cardiomyopathy is called primary myocardial damage that is not caused by an inflammatory, tumor or ischemic process. Often, the pathology has an unexplained etiology. To diagnose a patient with cardiomyopathy, it is necessary to exclude other diseases: congenital malformations, valvular heart defects, damage caused by systemic vascular diseases, arterial hypertension, pericarditis, etc.
Types of Cardiomyopathy There are three main types of cardiomyopathy:
3. restrictive cardiomyopathy.
Dilated cardiomyopathy In this type of cardiomyopathy, the left and right ventricles are stretched, and because of this, the volume of their cavities increases. If a healthy heart of an adult is approximately the size of a fist and weighs 240-310 grams, then with dilated cardiomyopathy it increases in size.
All this leads to a decrease in myocardial contractility: the strength and speed of contraction decreases. It becomes difficult for an enlarged heart to expel blood, which leads to the development of progressive heart failure.
There are several factors that influence the development of dilated cardiomyopathy:
Heredity. A number of genetic pathologies cause a violation of the synthesis of contractile proteins in the heart muscle, and this leads to stretching of the walls of the heart.
Viruses. Some enteroviruses, for example, the fairly common Coxsackie virus, can damage heart cells and lead to an increase in heart volume.
Alcoholism. Alcohol, when consumed excessively, not only has a toxic effect on the nervous system, but also damages heart cells. In this case, alcoholic cardiomyopathy develops.
In men, dilated cardiomyopathy occurs 2 times more often than in women.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, an increase in the size of the heart muscle is observed. Moreover, often hypertrophy is most pronounced in the area of the interventricular septum. This leads to the fact that the septum protrudes into the region of the ventricle and, when the heart contracts, interferes with the normal release of blood from the ventricle into the aorta. This phenomenon is called obstruction, therefore this type of cardiomyopathy is also called obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Exercise is contraindicated in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: it aggravates the obstruction and causes heart failure. The sensational cases when young athletes suddenly died right during the competition, for the most part, were associated with this particular violation. Due to the fact that it is almost asymptomatic, it seems that this is a sudden death against the background of iron health. However, in reality, this is a lack of timely diagnosis.
In almost 100% of cases, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is caused by a genetic defect - hereditary or sporadic (accidental).
Restrictive cardiomyopathy In restrictive cardiomyopathy, the myocardium becomes rigid (stiff): it is unable to relax, which prevents the ventricles from filling normally with blood. This can happen for several reasons:
1.due to pathological myocardial infiltration, which is caused by diseases such as amyloidosis, hemochromatosis, sarcoidosis,
2.As a result of diabetes
3.due to heredity,
4. for unknown reasons.
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