A virus is a non-cellular infectious agent that can only reproduce inside living cells. Viruses infect all types of organisms - from humans, animals, plants to bacteria.
Coronavirus infection COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by a new strain of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which was identified in December 2019.
COVID-19 spreads between people through airborne droplets through direct contact or through the air at a distance of about one and a half meters from each other. After infection, symptoms of COVID-19 may appear within two weeks, mainly fever, cough, shortness of breath. Other symptoms include a runny nose, loss of smell, headache, weakness, diarrhea, and nausea. It is believed that the elderly, pregnant women, people with chronic diseases, smokers are at increased risk.
There is also asymptomatic carriage of the virus, most often children and young adults become carriers. They can transmit the virus to other people through contact without developing symptoms of the disease themselves.
The considered laboratory study in medicine is called polymerase chain reaction (PCR). According to official data, using a modern device, the results of such a study should be ready no later than 5-6 hours.
PCR research is a highly accurate method for determining the virus. This is an analysis of genetic material (DNA and RNA), which determines the presence of a virus in the body at a very early stage. Biomaterial for research is taken from the nasopharynx.
IgM antibodies are produced in the body in response to infection with COVID-19, they begin to be produced first, then their level begins to rise rapidly and reaches a maximum in the acute period of the disease. By the time of recovery, these antibodies disappear. IgG antibodies Indicate a person's immune status to the virus. The biomaterial for IHLA research is venous blood.
The presence of IgG antibodies indicates that either the disease is at a late stage, or the person has suffered this viral infection in the past and has developed immunity to this viral disease. Venous blood is a biomaterial for IHLA studies.
What can influence the result?
For IgM: false negative result (infection is present despite negative test): period of "serological window" between 5-7th and 10-14th days with indolent infection without significant viral multiplication (negative PCR) and before the production of immunoglobulins G ; a false-positive result, that is, a positive test for IgM in the absence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the body - with autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, thyroiditis, etc.), HIV infection.
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