Pansinusitis is an infectious disease that is characterized by inflammation of the mucous membrane inside the sinuses and lasts up to 4 weeks. It is an extremely common disease in children and adults. It can occur as a result of a viral or bacterial infection. In the case of the virus, special treatment is not required, but a bacterial infection is more severe and requires medical treatment. Drugs are prescribed strictly by a doctor.
Traumatic injuries of the middle and upper third of the skull are accompanied by the destruction of the bone structures of the sinuses and nasal septum, resulting in obstruction of the excretory ducts. With the penetration of foreign objects into the sinus, the development of similar symptoms is noted.
The development of acute inflammation of the paranasal sinuses is associated with acute respiratory infections, the causative agents of which are respiratory syncytial infection, adenoviruses, parvoviruses. In the chronic version of the course, the bacterial flora more often acts as a pathogen: staphylococci, beta-hemolytic streptococci, pneumococci.
The pain is most often localized in the nose, eyebrow, orbits, nape, central part of the head. On palpation, pain sensations intensify, soft tissue edema is observed in the projection of the sinuses. Headaches appear due to the spread of the inflammatory process on the membrane of the brain. Headache does not have a clear localization, increases with sudden head movements and physical exertion.
The patient complains of difficulty in nasal breathing, which occurs against a background of obstruction of the sinus outlets and swelling of the mucous membrane. As a result of atrophy of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity in a patient, sensitivity to odors decreases or anosmia occurs.
Diagnosis of pansinusitis is based on the analysis of complaints, physical examination data, a set of laboratory and instrumental studies. To confirm the diagnosis, anterior and posterior rhinoscopy, diagnostic puncture, radiography and ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the paranasal sinuses are used.
In mild cases, etiotropic therapy consists in selecting the correct antibiotic therapy if the causative agent of the disease is bacteria. In case of a viral infection, interferons, synthetic nucleosides are used, and with fungal etiology of the disease, fungicidal agents are used.
Symptomatic therapy is necessary to alleviate the general condition and prevent side effects of etiotropic treatment. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can be used to eliminate pain, antihistamines and inflammation of glucocorticoids can be used to stop edema. To stabilize the microflora, the use of probiotics and prebiotics is indicated.
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