Risk factors for developing cervical cancer are:
- Early onset of sexual activity
- A large number of sexual partners
Regardless of the history of sexual activity, clinicians should assume that women have been in contact with a person with HPV, as this disease is ubiquitous.
- Pap smear
Clinical staging, usually by biopsy, pelvic examination, chest x-ray
Cervical cancer can be suspected on routine gynecological examinations.
It is suggested in women with the following manifestations:
- Visible pathological foci on the cervix
- Abnormal results of a routine Pap test
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding
The results of cytological examination of a smear from the cervix are presented in a standardized form. Further diagnostics are carried out when atypical or malignant cells are found, especially in women at risk. If the cytology results do not unequivocally confirm cancer, a colposcopy is done to identify areas for biopsy. Colposcopy-guided biopsy with endocervical curettage is usually informative.
- Excision or radical radiation therapy, if there is no spread to the parametrium or deeper
- Radiation therapy and chemotherapy when spreading to parameters or deeper
- Chemotherapy for metastatic and recurrent cancer
Treatment for cervical cancer may include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. If a hysterectomy is indicated, but the patient may not be able to tolerate it, radiation therapy is used in combination with chemotherapy.