Cardiomyopathy is a cardiac pathology characterized by damage to the myocardium (muscular, median layer of the heart). With a disease, there is a violation of blood circulation throughout the body, which negatively affects its functioning and provokes a threat to human life.
There are two main types of cardiomyopathy, depending on the etiology of the disease: ischemic (associated with ischemic heart muscle disease) and non-ischemic (not associated with ischemic heart disease).
Non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, in turn, is subdivided into 3 types:
• Dilation (stagnant) - characterized by an increase in the volume of all cavities of the heart muscle, from which there is a decrease in the contractile function of the myocardium.
• Restrictive - characterized by a decrease in the diastolic volume of the ventricles (less blood flows in the relaxation phase), a deterioration in the elasticity and flexibility of the heart walls.
• Hypertrophic - characterized by a thickening of the walls of the heart while reducing the internal space. In this case, there is an increase in either the right or left ventricle.
Cardiomyopathy can progress over time and provoke complications from various organs and systems. That is why it is necessary to consult a doctor at the first symptoms of pathology.
The main danger of the disease is its asymptomatic course in the early stages. A person can live for a long time without realizing the presence of a serious cardiac pathology. Often, cardiomyopathy is diagnosed randomly during an ECG.
In later stages, the following symptoms may appear:
• shortness of breath (especially with physical exertion or lying down);
• pallor or cyanosis of the skin;
• dizziness, general weakness;
• chest pain;
• blue tips of the fingers;
• loss of consciousness.
Congenital cardiomyopathy occurs due to a violation of the process of laying the myocardial tissues at the stage of embryo development. The anomaly can occur due to unhealthy diet, smoking, or alcohol consumption by a pregnant woman. Also, inflammatory diseases during pregnancy and a woman's exposure to stress can also affect the abnormal development of the myocardium.
The tactics of treatment for cardiomyopathy depends on how strongly the pathology is developed. If the disease is detected at an early stage and there are no complications, drug treatment is possible.
In addition to taking medications, the patient is prescribed a special diet with a limited content of fats and salt, and daily physical activity and giving up bad habits are recommended.
In severe stages of cardiomyopathy or in the event that conservative methods of treatment have not brought the expected result, our specialists recommend surgery.
Surgical methods of treatment of pathology used in the "CM-Clinic", which correspond to the global practice of managing patients with cardiomyopathy:
implantation of a cardioverter-defibrillator.