Bladder cystoscopy is an endoscopic examination, that is, a visual examination of the walls of the urethra, bladder and ureteral exits using optics in order to identify pathology. It is a diagnostic procedure, but it makes it possible to target biomaterial sampling (simultaneous biopsy) when pathological foci are detected, and drugs are administered.
The study allows not only to inspect the bladder cavity, but also to evaluate the functions of each kidney separately by the nature of the discharge from the right and left ureters, since they open into the bladder and are well visualized during the procedure; can be used as an auxiliary method for the diagnosis of prostatitis, adenoma and adenocarcinoma of the prostate - thus the medical indications for cystography are quite wide.
The procedure can be prescribed at any age and is the main diagnostic method for some diseases of the genitourinary system, when safer methods of research (ultrasound, radiation, magnetic resonance imaging) do not provide the necessary information, as well as, if necessary, taking biomaterial from the foci of inflammation for histological examination / neoplasms, foreign bodies (obtaining samples of urinary stones in order to clarify their composition to prescribe the correct treatment and diet). When calculi (stones) are found, small formations can be destroyed and removed using an endoscope, polyps can be removed and sent for analysis.
It is also possible to obtain a discharge from each ureter in order to assess renal function, diagnose inflammation (infectious or autoimmune, unilateral or bilateral). This is especially important when planning an operation to remove one of the kidneys, when the functional state of the remaining kidney will play a decisive role.
In case of tumors and inflammatory diseases of the prostate, cystography of the bladder in men will help to determine the extent of the process to the surrounding tissues, the degree and nature of the involvement of the bladder and urethra in the pathological process.
Despite the fact that cystoscopy is a diagnostic procedure, with its help, as with almost all endoscopic examinations, some therapeutic manipulations can be performed:
- Crushing and removal of small stones
- Removal of polyps, small tumors with their further examination with simultaneous coagulation of wound surfaces
-Coagulation of erosions and ulcers lost, bladder
- Removal of clots or foreign bodies and restoration of patency of the urinary tract in case of obstruction with blood, pus or small calculi
-Introduction of medicinal solutions, lavage of the bladder and urethra (lavage water is also collected for research).
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