Normally, fertilization occurs in the fallopian tube. Immediately after the fusion, the resulting fetal egg, due to the progressive contraction of the fallopian tubes, moves into the uterine cavity. Here it is fixed to the wall (implantation occurs) and further develops.
If the fetal egg for some reason remains in the fallopian tube or is pushed in the opposite direction, into the abdominal cavity, and is attached to the ovaries and other internal organs, an ectopic pregnancy occurs. Its danger is in the development of internal bleeding. This happens due to the fact that the fetal egg can injure the surrounding tissues as it grows. As a result, there is a rupture of the fallopian tube, the angle of the uterus (if the ectopic pregnancy is located in the additional horn). Late delivery of medical care can cost a woman's life.
Ectopic pregnancy is an insidious condition. Often, the symptoms are blurred, generally absent until the development of intra-abdominal bleeding.
It is necessary to suspect an ectopic pregnancy in the following cases:
- there is a delay in menstruation and pulls the lower abdomen;
- the girl knows that she is pregnant, but suddenly there are aching abdominal pains for up to 6-7 weeks of gestation;
- instead of menstruation comes dark smearing discharge, etc.
The main symptoms are pain and abnormal discharge from the genital tract. The pain is usually aching, bothering the lower abdomen, in the lower back. The discharge is scanty smearing. They are dark brown or blood-red in color.
It is rarely possible to avoid surgery. As a rule, when an ectopic pregnancy is confirmed, it is removed. Preferably by laparoscopy. In this case, the doctor makes several punctures on the front wall of the abdomen, through which manipulators ("surgeon's hands") penetrate into the abdominal cavity, with the help of which the ectopically located fetal egg is removed. Options for operations (taking into account the fact that in 98% of cases, ectopic pregnancy is localized in the fallopian tube):
removal of only the fetal egg and reconstructive surgery on the fallopian tube to restore its patency;
removal of the fetal egg along with the fallopian tube.