- Disruption of the hormonal background.
- Traumatization. It occurs during difficult labor, curettage of the uterine cavity.
- Chronic inflammatory processes that affect the state of the walls of the uterus.
- Irregular sex life.
- Decreased immune status, severe stressful situations, incorrect use of contraceptives.
- The disease is asymptomatic, so even a healthy woman should regularly visit a gynecologist.
With a complex course, there are long, heavy menstruations, bleeding in the middle of the cycle, abdominal and lower back pain, frequent urination. Blood loss reduces hemoglobin, causes fatigue, loss of performance.
Symptoms of uterine fibroids
The small size of the fibroids can develop without symptoms. They are accidentally detected during a gynecological examination. Uterine fibroids (fibroids) are transformed into a malignant tumor are rare.
- increased and prolonged menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia) with the release of blood clots;
- there are acyclic uterine bleeding (metrorrhagia), accompanied by anemia;
- there is a pain syndrome, it depends on the location and size of the tumor.
frequent, difficult urination and chronic constipation;
- large nodes (more than 20 weeks of pregnancy) cause the syndrome of compression of the inferior vena cava, manifested by palpitations and shortness of breath, in the supine position.
Diagnosis of uterine fibroids
The diagnosis of "uterine fibroids" can be established already at the initial gynecological examination. With a two-handed vaginal examination, a dense, enlarged uterus with a bumpy, knotty surface is palpated. More reliably determine the size of uterine fibroids, its localization and classification allows ultrasound of the pelvic organs.
An informative method of diagnosing the disease is hysteroscopy-examination of the cavity and walls of the uterus using an optical device-a hysteroscope. Hysteroscopy is performed both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes: the identification and removal of myomatous nodes of certain localizations. Additionally, hysterosalpingoscopy can be performed - ultrasound examination, probing of the uterine cavity, diagnosis of sexual infections and oncopathology.
Treatment of fibroids without surgery
Drug therapy is aimed at preserving the uterus.
- Antitumor hormonal drugs (gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists) - reduce estradiol, reducing the size of the uterus and nodes. The drugs are administered intramuscularly, subcutaneously or in the nose.
- Synthetic steroid hormones (antigonadotropins) - used if uterine fibroids are accompanied by endometriosis, endometrial hyperplasia.
- Progesterone receptor antagonists-inhibit the growth of nodes and promote their regression (resorption).
-Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists-inhibit the secretion of gonadotropins. Reduce the duration of therapy, promote rapid recovery of ovarian function. They are injected.
- Aromatase blockers-reduce the size of the formations.
- Interferons-contribute to the progressive reduction of nodes. Therapy is expensive and hard to tolerate, rarely used.
- Antifibrotics-Tablets inhibit the development of fibroids, but do not work to reduce the nodes.
With timely therapy, patients avoid surgery. Medications are available by prescription. It is unacceptable to use medicines independently, you need to consult a gynecologist-endocrinologist.