Factors contributing to the onset and development of breast pathology include:
- hereditary factor (presence of benign and malignant neoplasms in maternal relatives);
- neuroendocrine disorders;
- age over 40;
- artificial termination of pregnancy;
- prolonged mental stress;
- late first pregnancy;
- absence, short or long period of breastfeeding;
the age of the first birth (women who have given birth to two children under 25 years of age have three times less risk of developing breast diseases compared with those who had only one child);
- early menarche and late menopause;
combination with hyperplastic processes in other organs of the reproductive system.
Symptoms and pathologies
A characteristic sign of mastopathy is palpable lumps in the chest. They can be painful, especially before your period. The pain can be felt in the area of the arm, shoulder blade.
Typically, lumps can be found in both glands, mainly in the upper chest.
In rare cases, there is an increase in lymph nodes in the armpits. Also, sometimes there are nipple discharge of a different nature and color. If this symptom is detected, you should immediately contact a mammologist.
The diagnosis of fibrocystic mastopathy is made on the basis of clinical, instrumental, cytological and histological examination.
At the appointment, the doctor collects anamnesis, palpates the mammary glands. In addition, mammography (biocontrast X-ray of the breast), ultrasound, MRI are prescribed.
Breast biopsy is performed when a palpable or visualized focal lesion is detected in the mammary gland, less often in patients at high risk of developing breast cancer, in the presence of diffuse changes in the mammary gland.
The organs of the endocrine system are also examined, blood is taken for tests.
Treatment of diffuse and nodular forms of mastopathy is different. The first is treated conservatively, the second, in most cases, surgically.
For the treatment of diffuse mastopathy, non-drug methods and drug therapy are used, including the intake of hormonal drugs and non-hormonal drugs (vitamins, vitamin-mineral complexes, adaptogens, galenic, diuretics, sedatives, hepatoprotectors, potassium preparations, enzymes, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, iodine preparations, etc. .)
Patients suffering from mastopathy should reduce the consumption of tea and coffee, quit smoking, and include more vegetables and fruits in the diet.