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Endometrial polyp - polyps, as a rule, are benign formations that arise from the basal layer of the endometrium (i.e., the inner layer of the uterus) due to excessive cell division. A distinctive feature of such a polyp is the presence of a “leg”, in which the vessels supplying it pass. Due to the risk of degeneration of benign endometrial polyps into malignant (in 2-3% of cases), they are subject to removal and histological examination to exclude cancer.

The causes of the endometrial polyp:

Endometrial polyp is a very common gynecological pathology, comprising from 10 to 25% in all cases and from 40 to 70% after menopause.

The causes of the polyp are diverse:

  • hormonal imbalance, especially an excess of estrogen and a lack of progesterone in the second phase of the menstrual cycle;
  • chronic inflammatory process in the uterus, its cervix or appendages;
  • endometriosis;
  • diseases of the adrenal gland, pancreas (diabetes mellitus);
  • prolonged use of glucocorticosteroids or sex hormones;
  • obesity, hypertension - increase the risk of developing polyps by 10 times;
  • frequent abortions, miscarriages, curettage;
  • incomplete removal of the placenta after childbirth or abortion (placental polyp);
  • surgical interventions on the uterus and ovaries;
  • long standing intrauterine device
  • and many others.

Diagnostics

The easiest way to diagnose a polyp is an ultrasound of the pelvic organs, in which the size and location of the polyps are clearly visible. More complex and expensive diagnostic methods (MRI) are resorted to only in complex diagnostic cases. Also use diagnostic hysteroscopy, which allows you to simultaneously diagnose and remove the polyp.

Treatment

Since the endometrial polyp is a pathological formation, surgical methods of treatment are preferred:

  • Diagnostic curettage of the uterus
  • Diagnostic hysteroscopy, hysteroresectoscopy - have undeniable advantages over curettage, because it provides a good visualization of the uterine cavity, while curettage is performed “blindly” and there is a risk of polyps recurrence.
  • Laser polypectomy:

To date, the most gentle and effective removal of polyps is laser polypectomy (laser removal of polyps from the uterus). The procedure is performed using a holmium laser under the control of hysteroscopy. The holmium laser is the first and only of its kind. Its peculiarity lies in the localization of the point, a slight lesion of the surrounding tissues (penetration is 0.4 mm).

It works on a pulse basis, so it does not leave burns. This is a great device for working with biological tissues. Remote endometrial polyp, if laser treatment is performed, does not leave scars. An important feature is the complete removal of the polyp leg, which dramatically reduces the risk of relapse.