Gallstones are a symptom of gallstone disease, cholelithiasis. Bile contains components that can precipitate, accumulate and form seals – stones in the cavity of the gallbladder or bile ducts. The presence of such inclusions leads to violations of the outflow of bile, inflammatory processes in the membranes of the bladder, infection of the organ and reduces the efficiency of the biliary system of the body.
Gallstones are extremely rare in people under the age of 25 years. Their presence can be accompanied by extremely severe suffering when they enter the duodenum from the gallbladder through the bile duct. If they have reached a large size in the gallbladder, so that they fill the entire lumen of the duct or even exceed it in diameter, then the phenomena of so-called hepatic or bile colic are detected. The mucous membrane of the narrow flow greatly irritated wrinkled; appear in the highest degree painful reduction of muscular layer; patients complain of burning, drilling or stabbing pain in the liver, giving in the hypochondrium or shoulder. Patients are restless, rushing, cold sweat appears, pulse weakens and slows down. In very susceptible persons appear even convulsions, fainting, sometimes even heart failure and death. Colic is often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, constipation. The number and duration of attacks are very different. As soon as the stone has passed through the duct of the gallbladder, the pain instantly passes, but then resumes as soon as the stone reaches the outlet of the common bile duct.
* the leading factor is considered to be the strengthening of such characteristics of bile as lithogenicity, which occurs as a result of excessive cholesterol intake;
* dyskinesia, or a decrease in the functional ability of the gallbladder to contract and push bile into the ducts;
* bile hypertension in the organ due to narrowing of the neck of the gallbladder, which also leads to stagnation of bile;
* localized or General infectious processes that reduce the effectiveness of the hepatobiliary system.
• Identify different risk factors that increase the likelihood of cholelithiasis and the formation of stones in the gallbladder:
• belonging to the female sex: women are suffering from the stones formed in the gall bladder much more often than men;
• elderly age;
* gestation period as increased estrogen levels contribute to the secretion of cholesterol into the bile;
* irrational diets, starvation, weight loss for various reasons;
* long courses of parenteral nutrition;
* long-term use of drugs containing estrogen, oral contraceptives, sandostatin, Ceftriaxone, etc.;
* some diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, hepatobiliary organs, etc.
Complicated forms of cholelithiasis and prevention of their complications are subject to treatment. In the presence of stones without a clinical picture of cholecystitis, therapy consists of diet, regimen, active lifestyle to reduce the likelihood of bile stagnation and related complications, as well as taking drugs that destroy the structure of stones (Henofalk, Ursosan and others). At single inclusions of stones-concretions and absence of signs of the disease in mode
rn medicine the method of shock-wave therapy is used.
Conservative therapy includes several procedures and techniques based on the well-known formula " cold, hunger and peace»:
* complete hunger with vomiting, if the attack is not accompanied by vomiting, you can drink water;
* cold (ice) on the right hypochondrium, a method of local hypothermia to reduce inflammation and hypertension of the gallbladder;
* antibacterial drugs in the inflammatory process;
* detoxification therapy and forcing the withdrawal of fluid from the body with diuretics;
* relief of pain attacks with analgesics (Maxigan, Analgin) and antispasmodic drugs (Papaverine, no-Shpa, Baralgin, Platyphylline, etc.) or combined medications with analgesic and antispasmodic action.
Surgical treatment as a method of therapy is prescribed for frequent attacks of acute cholecystitis, large size of concretion
s, destructive course of the disease and the presence of severe complications. The method of surgical treatment can be based on open or laparoscopic penetration and different variants of manipulation of the gallbladder.
Tashkent clinic "Gatling-med", equipped with the latest medical technologies and doctors with more than 10 years of experience is ready to answer all your questions and provide appropriate treatment. We guarantee the highest quality of treatment and care for our patients.