Enuresis is a urological disease characterized by urinary incontinence in humans. In this case, there is an independent relaxation of the sphincter and emptying of the bladder without a command from the brain. According to statistics, enuresis is a pediatric disease (94.5 %). Among adolescents or the elderly, involuntary emptying of the bladder is much less common (1-5 %).
It should be noted that enuresis in children is considered by doctors as a physiological norm, while in adults this disorder can be a sign of neurological or mental illness.
Causes of enuresis
* Neurological causes. They may be associated with a recovery period after a stroke, traumatic brain injury, or spinal injury.
• Violation alarm to the brain about the fullness of the bladder.
* Small volume of the bladder, not allowing long enough to hold the liquid. During the day, the child can feel the urge to urinate for a long time, and during sleep, there is an involuntary emptying of the organ.
• Hormonal imbalance. In childhood, the body may produce insufficient amounts of antidiuretic hormone, which slows down the formation of urine at night.
* Congenital and acquired anatomical defects of the bladder and urethra. In addition, a defect of the prostate gland in men is possible.
* Impaired renal function, leading to the formation of a large volume of urine. Most often, the cause of this disorder is insufficient reabsorption of water in the renal tubules.
* Neuropsychiatric diseases associated with anxiety.
* Infectious diseases of the bladder. Bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungal microorganisms can actively multiply in the bladder and disrupt the regulation of the internal sphincter of the organ. In this case, patients with cystitis usually complain of pain in the pubic area, burning during urination and fever.
* Primary enuresis is the most common type of disorder that occurs in children aged 3 to 7 years. This condition occurs before the final formation of conscious regulation of urination. Involuntary emptying of the bladder in a child happens several times a week at night. Pathological variants of primary enuresis can occur due to improper diet, stress, taking some medications and other factors.
* Secondary enuresis, arising after a long period of control of physiological functions. This form of regulation of urination doctors tend to consider as a pathology.
* Urination disorder in adults. This disease is especially common among the elderly, who have enuresis occurs against the background of chronic diseases of the genitourinary system, degenerative pathologies of the Central nervous system and other conditions.
Treatment of enuresis
The list of treatment options includes surgery (minimally invasive), medication, physical therapy and exercises to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles.
In the case of neurogenic bladder, the goal of therapy is to reduce contractile activity and increase the functional capacity of the bladder. To do this, patients are prescribed drugs that reduce the tone of detrusor (muscle membrane of the bladder), such as atropine and its derivatives. Assign as driptan, which has a similar effect. In women, enuresis can be associated with the weakening of the pelvic floor muscles, and is expressed in the omission or even loss of the pelvic organs.
As a rule, the treatment program includes physical therapy: microcurrents, ultrasound, thermal procedures on the bladder area, physical therapy, massage. In stress incontinence, behavioral therapy is indicated, and if the situation is triggered, surgery may be required.
If the cause is the proliferation of tissues that block the ureter, then treatment is only operative. If the reason for the weakening of the muscles, then use drugs that contribute to the complete emptying of the bladder, physical therapy and physiotherapy.
Enuresis has an extremely negative impact on the mental state of people, so it is important to undergo a timely examination to detect the root causes of the disease. Specialists of Tashkent clinic gatling-med
offer professional and modernized examination of the organism. We use recognized modern diagnostic methods and accumulated experience in order to make a complete picture of the disease and prescribe appropriate treatment. Whatever the causes of the disease, our doctors select for each patient the most effective method of treatment.