What it is ?
Mitral valve defect with reverse blood flow (regurgitation) from the left ventricle to the atrium as a result of incomplete closure of the leaflets is called mitral insufficiency. In an independent form, the acquired disease is rare and has a benign character for a long time. But in the composition of combined and combined defects, it is detected in half of all cases of cardiac defects and quickly leads to serious complications.
Causes of occurrence
The formation of a defect can occur during the prenatal period, in which case it is considered congenital. The reasons for this pathology can be:
• Alcoholism, drug use and smoking of the mother during pregnancy;
• Ionizing radiation;
• Poisoning and taking certain medications (antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs);
• Systemic and infectious diseases. The etiological factors of the acquired deviation are usually: • Streptococcal and staphylococcal infections with the development of septic endocarditis;
• Autoimmune diseases (lupus, multiple sclerosis);
• Myocardial damage as a result of a heart attack;
• Mitral valve prolapse;
• Marfan's syndrome;
• Injury to the chest with rupture of the leaflets or fibers holding them.
Relative mitral insufficiency is observed with a pronounced increase in the left ventricle. This condition can be caused by dilated cardiomyopathy, aortic valve disease, myocarditis, and hypertension.
You can identify the problem using the following methods:
1. ECG. It will show signs of left myocardial hypertrophy, and later - the right ventricle. Sometimes it is possible to fix tachycardia and rhythm disturbances.
2. Plain chest X-ray. On it, you can see an increase in the left sections, a displacement of the esophagus, in later stages - hypertrophy of the right ventricle. Congestion in the lungs is manifested by vasodilation and indistinctness of their outlines.
3. Phonocardiogram. A very informative examination in which it is possible to determine all the noises produced by the heart muscle. A symptom of the disease will be a decrease in the sound of ventricular contraction, a systolic murmur, a click of the valve closing.
4. Violation is confirmed by echocardiography. The ultrasound method detects enlargement of the heart chambers and incomplete closure of the mitral opening.
Treatment of mitral valve insufficiency at the stage of compensation consists in constant monitoring of the patient, reducing physical activity and using means to prevent the progression of the disease. If complications appear, and there is no possibility of solving the problem surgically, symptomatic therapy is used:
• Cardiac glycosides;
• Beta blockers;
• Calcium antagonists;
• ACE inhibitors;
• Anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents.
No drug can cure the disease. Conservative methods only help temporarily delay the deterioration and improve the quality of life. The only way to fix the problem is to perform surgery.
You can safely begin treatment, which we carry out as quickly and efficiently as possible in Tashkent. The Gatling Med clinic will make you feel confident in yourself and your health!