The main clinical manifestations:
- Excessive male-pattern hair growth - on the chin, chest, upper back and abdomen;
- obesity (formed in 40% of patients);
- rashes on the skin in the form of acne, seborrhea;
- menstrual irregularities - unnecessarily long or short cycle, lack of an established cycle, abundant or scanty bleeding. Over time, the interval between periods increases and amenorrhea sets in.
Irregular menstruation can lead to infertility due to lack of ovulation. Accidental pregnancies are possible, but they often result in spontaneous miscarriages. In some women, polycystic ovarian changes can be expressed in vegetative-vascular disorders and symptoms similar to the manifestation of menopause.
Diagnosis of polycystic ovarian changes
Important: The diagnosis is not made only by examination or ultrasound. It is established by a gynecologist on the basis of an instrumental examination, conclusions of an endocrinologist and a specialist in ultrasound diagnostics.
What does the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome include:
- examination - collection of complaints, external manifestations, questioning about heredity, palpation of the ovaries;
- ultrasound of the pelvic organs;
- laboratory tests for hormones - luteinizing, serum testosterone, prolactin.
Also, when establishing a diagnosis, a pregnancy test, an ultrasound examination of the adrenal glands, a blood sugar test, determination of cholesterol and lipoprotein levels are performed. To exclude congenital pathologies, it is recommended to conduct an MRI of the Turkish saddle and ultrasound of the thyroid gland.
Methods and methods of ovarian treatment
The doctor's tactics depend on the clinical manifestations and the causes of the onset of the disease. It should be aimed at restoring hormonal balance, returning the possibility of pregnancy and relieving unpleasant symptoms.
First of all, it is recommended to reduce weight when it exceeds the norm - to establish a balanced diet and increase physical activity. It is noted that in women without obesity, the cycle, ovulation is better restored, and insulin sensitivity is significantly increased.
Medication for polycystic ovary disease includes:
- Hormonal contraceptives.
- Estrogen-progestin drugs.
- Insulin sensitizers (drugs to correct insulin resistance).
In the absence of the effect of conservative therapy, an operation is prescribed. It can be performed by drilling (laser incisions of the ovaries to stimulate ovulation), removal of polycystic disease using wedge resection. With this treatment, pregnancy usually occurs within 6 to 12 months.