Arterial hypertension (AH) or essential hypertension, as it is commonly called this disease in Russia, is a persistent increase in blood pressure from 140 and above systolic and from 90 and above diastolic.
Symptoms of arterial hypertension
Complaints with an increase in blood pressure are possible for headaches, dizziness, nausea, pain in the heart, palpitations, rapid fatigue. Despite high BP values, there may be no complaints. This is why hypertension is often compared to a silent killer, as its health effects are often seen late in the disease. Even if a person with hypertension feels fine, the disease, if left untreated, affects almost all organs.
Treatment of hypertension Treatment of hypertension includes lifestyle changes and the selection of drugs to stabilize blood pressure. Lifestyle change interventions include:
To give up smoking. The life expectancy of a smoker is on average 10-13 years less than that of nonsmokers, with cardiovascular diseases and oncology becoming the main cause of death. It is also known that a smoked cigarette can cause an immediate increase in blood pressure by 20-40 mm. rt. Art.
Compliance with a diet. Eating a low-calorie diet with plenty of plant foods can help you lose weight. It is known that every 10 g of excess weight increases blood pressure by 10 mm Hg. Reducing the consumption of table salt to 4-5 grams per day has been proven to reduce the level of blood pressure, since with a decrease in salt, the retention of excess fluid in the vascular bed also decreases.
Physical exercise. In many studies, it has been proven that regular exercise helps to lower average blood pressure values. Patients with hypertension are recommended moderate aerobic exercise (walking, jogging, cycling, swimming) for at least 30 minutes for 5-7 days a week.
Drug treatment, according to the latest European and Russian recommendations, is carried out in five main classes of drugs: diuretics, calcium antagonists, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, both as monotherapy and in certain combinations.
Diuretics (thiazide, including hydrochlorothiazide and indapamide, loop - with hypertension, only torsemide and K-sparing ones have been registered for constant use) - reduce the volume of circulating blood and lower pressure;
Beta blockers. This group of drugs slows down the heart rate and reduces myocardial contractility, thereby lowering blood pressure;
Calcium channel blockers are divided into two main groups, and both are used to lower blood pressure. The main mechanism of action of dehydroperidine calcium antagonists is peripheral vasodilation, that is, expansion of peripheral vessels and thus a decrease in OPSS (total peripheral vascular resistance), and therefore, a decrease in blood pressure; The nonhydroperidine group reduces the heart rate by slowing down the conduction of the impulse between the atria and the ventricles of the heart.
ACE inhibitors. The drugs of this group reduce blood pressure, affecting the complex mechanism of the conversion of enzymes that contribute to an increase in the tone of the vascular wall and, as a result, with a decrease in this tone, vascular resistance also decreases.
Angiotensin receptor blockers act according to a scheme similar to the mechanism of action of ACE inhibitors, only at a higher level of enzyme metabolism (therefore, they do not cause a cough, but are sometimes less effective).
Some drugs are more preferable for specific situations, depending on the age, sex of the patient, clinical condition at the time of examination and the presence of concomitant diseases. There are also recommendations for optimal, rational and less studied combinations of drugs for lowering blood pressure.
You can safely begin treatment, which we carry out as quickly and efficiently as possible in Tashkent. The Gatling Med clinic will make you feel confident in yourself and your health!