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Lung diseases and the importance of their timely diagnosis
Lung diseases are very widespread. According to statistics, more than half of chronic diseases occur in the lungs and bronchi. Among the most common pathologies of the respiratory system are:
- pneumonia;
- lung cancer;
- COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease);
- tuberculosis;
- asthma;
- bronchitis.

And it is not only smokers and residents of environmentally disadvantaged regions who suffer from them. No one is immune from inflammation and neoplasms in the lungs, and these processes can be extremely dangerous. That is why doctors recommend conducting lung examinations regularly, as a preventive measure.
Methods of research of the lungs and respiratory tract. Today, many different methods are used to study the lungs and detect diseases and pathologies. We will consider only the main ones.
- Radioscopy. This is the most common method of lung examination, which allows you to see changes in the structure of the lung tissue, find pockets of compaction or hollow spaces, and detect the presence of fluid or air in the pleural cavity. The image is created using an X-ray machine and displayed on the screen.
X - ray examination. During this examination, the image is also created using an X-ray machine, but it is fixed on the film, and not displayed on the monitor. Radiography is a very accurate and informative method of diagnosing the lungs, allowing you to see even the smallest changes in time.
- Fluorography . In its principle, it is similar to radiography, but the image is either printed on a small-format film, or displayed on a monitor. Digital fluorography is characterized by a lower radiation exposure to humans, but the image quality is slightly worse in comparison with lung radiography.
- Bronchography. This variant of radiography is performed under local anesthesia and is used to diagnose the condition of the bronchi. A contrast agent is injected into the lumen of the bronchi, which does not pass X-rays.
- Bronchoscopy . This method is used to examine the mucous membrane of the trachea and bronchi. It is made by a special device-a bronchoscope, to which special forceps are attached for biopsy or extraction of foreign bodies and removal of polyps, a miniature camera and other devices. In order to protect the patient from unpleasant sensations, the manipulation is performed under local anesthesia. The bronchoscope is inserted through the mouth into the trachea.
- Thoracoscopy. Endoscopic examination of the pleural cavity, which is carried out with the help of a special tool – a thoracoscope. It is injected into the lungs under general anesthesia through a small puncture in the chest. In many ways, the principle of action resembles a bronchoscopy.

The study of the functions of the lungs
- Pulmonary ventilation. This method allows you to find out what the respiratory volume of the lungs is, and determine the degree of respiratory failure.
- Pleural puncture. During this examination of the lungs, the contents of the pleural cavity are taken for analysis through a small puncture. The manipulation takes place under local anesthesia. The main indications for pleural puncture are pleurisy, tumors, and abnormal accumulations of fluid and air in the lungs.

Laboratory methods (sputum examination)
Sputum is examined in two ways: microscopic and bacterioscopic. The first allows you to detect parasites, mucus, bacteria, various formations, and, in addition, to detect tuberculosis. Bacterioscopic method to identify agents of various lung infections. Of course, this is not all the methods of lung examination that are in the arsenal of modern medicine. However, the above methods are used more often than others. Often, the most accurate picture can be obtained by conducting several complementary studies.

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