Anal fissure is one of the most common conditions that affects both adults and children. It is more often diagnosed in women of the postpartum period. A fissure in the anus is a wound defect on the mucous membrane of the anal canal, which can have a linear or oval shape and rarely exceed 1 cm in size.
A crack in the anus is very painful, therefore it gives a person discomfort, and sometimes physical suffering. This is due to the many nerve endings in this part of the body. Since the defect does not heal on its own, the symptoms of the disease can last for years. The main ones are:
- traces of blood after a bowel movement;
- pain, burning, tingling during and after bowel movement;
-spasm of the anal sphincter;
itching in the anus;
-the presence of a sentinel tubercle (in chronic form).
As a rule, symptoms of the disease become more pronounced after ingestion of spicy food and alcohol. If the acute form of anal fissure is not treated, the disease becomes chronic and the symptoms decrease somewhat. Against the background of painful manifestations, a person may have a "fear of stool", because of which he less often empties the intestines, which makes the feces harder and further aggravates the pathology.
The etiology of this disease is not fully understood. But it is believed that the main factors contributing to the onset of pathology are:
- too hard feces, traumatizing the mucous membrane of the anus;
- a sedentary lifestyle, "sedentary" work and other behavioral features, due to which there is stagnation of blood in the perineum;
-hemorrhoids;- disturbed innervation of the rectum;
A fissure of the anus in an acute form is quite easy to treat. For effective therapy, the doctor prescribes:
- candles, ointments with analgesic, antispasmodic and wound healing effect;
- preparations for softening feces and preventing constipation;
- a diet high in fiber;
- pain relievers (with severe spasm
s and pain);
-physiotherapy to eliminate spasms;
-performing exercise therapy exercises, which allow to activate blood circulation and facilitate the passage of feces through the intestines.
How long the anal fissure heals dep
ends on the correctness of the selected therapy. In the chronic form of the disease, only surgical methods were previously used. Modern technologies make it possible to abandon radical measures and ensure the elimination of pathology without surgery and hospitalization of the patient.