Cardiac arrhythmias - the causes of the appearance, in what diseases it occurs, the diagnosis and methods of treatment.
The heart is a muscular organ that works like a pump and provides a constant flow of blood through the vessels. This is necessary for the uninterrupted delivery of blood, and with it oxygen and nutrients, to every cell of our body.
There is a wide variety of arrhythmias, each of which is characterized by its own frequency, the source of the rhythm, and also the effect on the contractile function of the heart.
Depending on the heart rate (HR), arrhythmias are divided into tachyarrhythmias (with an increase in heart rate of more than 80-90 beats per minute) and bradyarrhythmias (with a decrease in heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute).
According to the location of the area of the myocardium, which acts as an abnormal source of the heart rhythm, supraventricular (supraventricular) arrhythmias are isolated when the pacemaker is located in the atria or in the atrioventricular node, and ventricular arrhythmias when the pacemaker is located in the ventricles of the heart.
Some of the causes of heart rhythm disturbances lie directly in the structure of the heart muscle, while others are due to external influences on the heart.
Cardiac causes of arrhythmias include abnormalities in the structure of the heart (for example, congenital and acquired heart defects), the consequences of a previous myocardial infarction, inflammatory changes in heart tissue (carditis), heart tumors, cardiomyopathy (changes in the normal tissue of the myocardium), etc. the structure of the myocardium can lead to long-term current diseases of the endocrine system, arterial hypertension, alcoholism, etc.
Non-cardiac causes are conditionally referred to as those conditions that cause rhythm disturbances without introducing structural changes in the heart tissue. Such reasons include a violation of the innervation of the heart, fluctuations in the balance of electrolytes (potassium, magnesium, calcium) with damage to the kidneys, adrenal glands, parathyroid glands, with prolonged diarrhea or vomiting, with intoxication, including drugs, and other changes in metabolic processes.
Treatment of cardiac arrhythmias is as varied as the causes of arrhythmias. In case of detection of non-cardiac causes, the latter are subject to mandatory correction. For example, the treatment of hyperthyroidism (an increase in the concentration of the hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine), as the cause of arrhythmia, is reduced primarily to the normalization of the level of thyroid hormones.
The most common treatment is medication, in which the patient is prescribed drugs to help restore sinus rhythm or slow the heart rate.
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