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Causes of umbilical hernia
In most cases, an umbilical hernia appears in early childhood. After the umbilical cord falls off in newborns, the umbilical ring normally closes, the hole is obliterated by scar-connective tissue. In strengthening the area of the umbilical opening, an important role belongs to the abdominal muscles, which additionally tighten the ring. While the processes of obliteration of the umbilical ring are not yet completed, any increase in intra-abdominal pressure can contribute to the exit of the loops of the intestine, the large omentum and the peritoneum into the amniotic space. Thus, the formation of an umbilical hernia occurs. 


Symptoms of an umbilical hernia
Embryonic umbilical hernias are usually found in severe combined defects that are incompatible with life. With this type of defect, there is actually an underdevelopment of the anterior abdominal wall, through which the hernial sac containing internal organs (intestines, liver) exits. With embryonic umbilical hernias, cleavage often occurs.
 

Diagnosis of an umbilical hernia
An examination for an umbilical hernia is performed by a pediatrician or a surgeon. When examining the patient, attention is drawn to the presence of a spherical protrusion in the umbilical region. Sometimes, in the area of a hernia, the contours of intestinal loops and peristalsis are visible through the thinned skin. Palpation of the umbilical ring reveals a defect in the abdominal wall, a hernial sac, which, as a rule, includes a loop of the intestine and a large omentum. When a child cries, abdominal tension, hernial protrusion increases.

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