Chronic cholecystitis is the most common chronic disease that affects the biliary tract and gallbladder. The inflammation affects the walls of the gallbladder, in which stones are sometimes formed, and motor-tonic disorders of the biliary (biliary) system occur.
Currently, 10-20% of the adult population suffers from cholecystitis, and this disease tends to further increase.
This is due to the sedentary lifestyle, the nature of the diet (excessive consumption of food rich in animal fats - fatty meat, eggs, butter), the growth of endocrine disorders (obesity, diabetes). Women get sick 4 times more often than men, this is due to the use of oral contraceptives, pregnancy.
Chronic non-calculous cholecystitis
Inflammation of the walls of the gallbladder, in which no calculi (stones) are found in its lumen and ducts, is called acalculous cholecystitis.
Non-calculous (acalculous) chronic cholecystitis, as a rule, is a consequence of conditionally pathogenic microflora. It can be caused by Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, somewhat less often Proteus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
In some cases, there are non-calculous cholecystitis, which are caused by pathogenic microflora (typhoid bacilli, shigella), protozoal and viral infection. Microbes can enter the gallbladder through the blood (hematogenous route), through the lymph (lymphogenous route), from the intestine (by contact).
Causes of occurrence
Why does chronic cholecystitis occur, and what is it? The disease can appear after acute cholecystitis, but more often develops independently and gradually. In the emergence of a chronic form, various infections are of the greatest importance, in particular E. coli, typhoid and paratyphoid bacilli, streptococci, staphylococci and enterococci.
Primary sources of infection can be:
acute or chronic inflammatory processes of the gastrointestinal tract (infectious enterocolitis - inflammatory bowel disease, pancreatitis, appendicitis, intestinal dysbiosis),
respiratory tract (sinusitis, tonsillitis), oral cavity (periodontal disease),
inflammatory diseases of the urinary system (pyelonephritis, cystitis),
reproductive system (adnexitis - in women, prostatitis - in men),
viral liver damage,
parasitic invasion of the biliary tract (giardiasis, ascariasis).
Cholecystitis always begins with disturbances in the outflow of bile. It stagnates, in this regard, cholelithiasis, DGVP, which are the immediate precursors of chronic cholecystitis, may develop. But there is also a reverse movement of this process. Due to chronic cholecystitis, pancreatic motility slows down, bile stagnation develops, and stone formation increases.
Chronic cholecystitis symptoms
When chronic cholecystitis occurs, the main symptom is pain symptoms. Adults feel a dull aching pain in the right hypochondrium, which usually occurs 1-3 hours after eating plentiful, especially fatty foods and fried foods.
Pain radiates to the top, to the area of the right shoulder, neck, scapula, sometimes to the left hypochondrium. It intensifies with physical exertion, shaking, after taking spicy snacks, wine and beer. When cholecystitis is combined with gallstone disease, sharp pains like biliary colic may appear.
Along with pain, dyspeptic phenomena occur: a feeling of bitterness and a metallic taste in the mouth, belching with air, nausea, bloating, alternating constipation and diarrhea.
There are various forms of predisposition to the disease associated with individual characteristics of a person, primary pathologies, nutrition and heredity. Doctors must take into account the presence of risk factors for cholecystitis during examinations.
Key risk factors:
Obesity and significant weight loss over several months.
-Taking certain medications. In particular, the risk of developing inflammation in the gallbladder increases with the use of hormonal drugs.
-Chronic diseases of the intestines, liver and pancreas.
-Surgical treatment of abdominal organs, trauma.
-Chronic foci of inflammation in different parts of the body.
-Long-term administration of parenteral nutrition.
- Improper diet or prolonged fasting.
- Abuse of alcoholic beverages.
- Myocardial infarction and other heart diseases.
-Vascular disorders in diabetes mellitus.
- Abnormal reflux of pancreatic secretions into the gallbladder (pancreatobiliary reflux).
-Insufficient physical activity.
Chronic cholecystitis does not occur suddenly, it forms for a long time, and after exacerbations, against the background of treatment and adherence to a diet, periods of remission begin, the more carefully the diet and supportive therapy are followed, the longer the period of absence of symptoms.
Effective treatment, the right approach, professional support and favorable reception, this is the feature of the proctologists of the clinic GATLING-MED, which gives each person confidence in their healthy future.