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First aid for acute heart failure


First aid for acute heart failure

First aid for acute heart failure

Acute heart failure (AHF) is a serious pathological condition that develops in patients with various heart diseases and hypertension. This is one of the most common reasons for calling an ambulance and hospitalization of patients, as well as the mortality of the population of our country and the whole world.

The main manifestations (symptoms) of acute heart failure are:
Heavy, frequent (more than 24 per minute) noisy breathing - shortness of breath, sometimes reaching a degree of suffocation, with predominant difficulty breathing and a clear increase in shortness of breath and cough in a horizontal position. Sitting or reclining with a high-raised headboard relieves the patient's condition.
Moist wheezing rales / sounds are often heard when breathing,
interrupted by a cough, in the terminal stage, breathing takes on the character of a bubbling, with the appearance of foam at the mouth.
The patient is characterized by a seated posture with an emphasis with straight arms on the knees.

Acute heart failure can develop very quickly and lead to death of the patient within 30-60 minutes. In most cases, it takes 6-12 hours or more from the first clinical signs to severe manifestations of AHF, but without medical assistance the vast majority of patients with AHF die.

First aid measures
When the above symptoms of AHF appear in patients with hypertension or heart disease (but not lungs or bronchi), it is necessary:
Call an ambulance.
Give the patient a sitting position, preferably in a chair with armrests, on
which he can lean on and use the intercostal muscles in the act of breathing.
Provide physical and psycho-emotional peace and fresh air.
Lower your legs into a large container (basin, tank, bucket, etc.) with hot water.
In extremely severe cases, tourniquets are applied to the legs in the groin area, squeezing the superficial veins, but not deep arteries, which reduces blood flow to the heart and thereby facilitates its work.

If there is experience in the use of nitroglycerin in a patient or a person providing first aid, it is prescribed in a dose of 0.4 (0.5) mg (inhalation into the oral cavity is performed under the root of the tongue, the tablet / capsule is placed under the tongue, the capsule must first be bitten through, do not swallow). If the patient's well-being improves after the application of nitroglycerin, it is used again, every 5-10 minutes before the arrival of the ambulance team. In the absence of improvement in the patient's well-being after the use of nitroglycerin, it is no longer used.
Attention! A patient with AHF is strictly forbidden to get up, walk, smoke, drink water and take liquid food until the special permission of a doctor. You can not take nitroglycerin with blood pressure less than 100 mm Hg. Art., With severe headache, dizziness, acute visual impairment, speech or coordination of movements.

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