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Hypertension and its complications


Hypertension and its complications

Hypertension and its complications

Hypertension is a pathology of the cardiovascular apparatus that develops as a result of dysfunction of the higher centers of vascular regulation, neurohumoral and renal mechanisms and leads to arterial hypertension, functional and organic changes in the heart, central nervous system and kidneys. Subjective manifestations of high blood pressure are headaches, tinnitus, palpitations, shortness of breath, pain in the heart area, a veil before the eyes, etc. Examination in hypertension includes monitoring of blood pressure, ECG, echocardiography, USDG of the arteries of the kidneys and neck, urinalysis and biochemical parameters blood. When the diagnosis is confirmed, the selection of drug therapy is performed taking into account all risk factors.

Symptoms of hypertension
The options for the course of hypertension are varied and depend on the level of increase in blood pressure and on the involvement of target organs. In the early stages, hypertension is characterized by neurotic disorders: dizziness, transient headaches (often in the back of the head) and heaviness in the head, tinnitus, throbbing in the head, sleep disturbances, fatigue, lethargy, feeling weak, palpitations, nausea.
In the future, shortness of breath joins with fast walking, running, exertion, climbing stairs. Blood pressure is consistently above 140-160 / 90-95 mm Hg. (or 19-21 / 12 hPa). Sweating, facial flushing, chill-like tremors, numbness of the toes and hands are noted, and dull, prolonged pain in the region of the heart is typical. With fluid retention, there is swelling of the hands ("ring symptom" - it is difficult to remove the ring from the finger), face, puffiness of the eyelids, stiffness.
In patients with essential hypertension, there is a veil, flashing of flies and lightning before the eyes, which is associated with vasospasm in the retina; there is a progressive decrease in vision, hemorrhages in the retina can cause complete loss of vision.

Treatment of hypertension
In the treatment of hypertension, it is important not only to lower blood pressure, but also to correct and reduce the risk of complications as much as possible. It is impossible to completely cure hypertension, but it is quite possible to stop its development and reduce the frequency of crises.

Essential hypertension requires the joint efforts of the patient and the doctor to achieve a common goal. At any stage of hypertension, it is necessary:
1. Follow a diet with increased consumption of potassium and magnesium, limiting the consumption of table salt;
2. Stop or drastically restrict alcohol and smoking;
3. Get rid of excess weight;
3. To increase physical activity: it is useful to go in for swimming, physiotherapy exercises, take walking walks;
4. Systematically and for a long time to take the prescribed drugs under the control of blood pressure and dynamic observation of a cardiologist.

In hypertension, antihypertensive drugs are prescribed that inhibit vasomotor activity and inhibit the synthesis of norepinephrine, diuretics, β-blockers, antiplatelet agents, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic, sedatives. The selection of drug therapy is carried out strictly individually, taking into account the entire spectrum of risk factors, blood pressure levels, the presence of concomitant diseases and damage to target organs.

The criteria for the effectiveness of the treatment of hypertension is the achievement of:
1. short-term goals: maximum decrease in blood pressure to a level of good tolerance;
2. medium-term goals: preventing the development or progression of changes on the part of target organs;
3.Long-term goals: prevention of cardiovascular and other complications and prolongation of the patient's life

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