Bladder cystoscopy is an endoscopic examination, that is, a visual examination of the walls of the urethra, bladder and ureter outlets using optics in order to detect pathology. It is a diagnostic procedure, however, it allows targeted sampling of biomaterial (simultaneous biopsy) upon detection of pathological foci, administration of drugs.
The study allows not only to examine the bladder cavity, but also to evaluate the functions of each kidney separately by the nature of the discharge from the right and left ureters, since they open into the bladder and are well visualized during the procedure; can be used as an auxiliary method for the diagnosis of prostatitis, adenoma and adenocarcinoma of the prostate - thus, the medical indications for cystography are quite wide.
The procedure can be prescribed at any age and is the main diagnostic method for certain diseases of the genitourinary system, when safer methods of research (ultrasound, radiation, magnetic resonance) do not provide the necessary information, as well as, if necessary, taking biomaterial from foci of inflammation for histological examination / neoplasms, foreign bodies (obtaining samples of urinary stones in order to clarify their composition for prescribing the correct treatment and diet). If calculi (stones) are found, small formations can be destroyed and removed using an endoscope, polyps can be removed and sent for analysis.
It is also possible to obtain a discharge of each ureter in order to assess kidney function, diagnose inflammation (infectious or autoimmune, unilateral or bilateral). This is especially important when planning an operation to remove one of the kidneys, when the functional state of the remaining one will play a decisive role.
In case of tumors and inflammatory diseases of the prostate, cystography of the bladder in men will help determine the extent of the process to the surrounding tissues, the degree and nature of the involvement of the bladder and urethra in the pathological process.
Despite the fact that cystoscopy is a diagnostic procedure, with its help, as with the help of almost all endoscopic examinations, some therapeutic manipulations can be performed:
- Crushing and removal of small stones
- Removal of polyps, small tumors with their further study with simultaneous coagulation of wound surfaces
-Coagulation of erosions and ulcers of the bladder
- Removal of clots or foreign bodies and restoration of patency of the urinary tract when obstructed by blood, pus or small stones
- The introduction of medicinal solutions, washing the bladder and urethra (washing water is also collected for research).
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